Hungarian Cultural Studies <p><strong><em>Hungarian Cultural Studies, </em>Journal of the American Hungarian Educators Association</strong>, a peer-reviewed, no fee open access annual scholarly journal which appears in September. <a href="">People, Policies and Submissions</a></p> <p><a href="">ON-LINE SUBMISSION AND AUTHORS' GUIDELINES FOR SUBMISSION AND EVALUATION</a></p> <p><em>Hungarian Cultural Studies </em>aims to be politically neutral, providing a scholarly forum for original research in or related to Hungarian studies; that is, all aspects of Hungarian culture across the humanities and social science disciplines. Articles related to Hungarian diaspora communities as well as Hungarians in the states neighboring Hungary are also of interest. Articles published are based on a wide range of perspectives and utilize a plurality of theories and methodologies, with a comparative, multicultural and multidisciplinary nature.</p> University Library System, University of Pittsburgh en-US Hungarian Cultural Studies 2471-965X <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><ol><li>The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.</li><li>Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.</li><li>The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a <a title="CC-BY" href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:<ol type="a"><li>Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;</li></ol>with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.</li><li>The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. 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Revision Description: Removed outdated link. </span></p> A Note from the Editor Paul Olchváry Copyright (c) 2023 Paul Olchváry 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 251 252 10.5195/ahea.2023.556 Selected English-Language Bibliography of Interest for Hungarian Cultural Studies: 2022–2023 <p>This bibliography mostly straddles 2022–2023, covering the period since the summer 2022 publication of last year’s bibliography in this journal. Each year’s bibliography may also be supplemented by previously published items earlier not included. Although this bibliography series can only concentrate on English-language items, occasional items of particular interest in other languages may be included. For a more extensive bibliography of Hungarian Studies from about 2000 to 2014, for which this is a continuing update, see Louise O. Vasvári, Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek, and Carlo Salzani. “Bibliography for Work in Hungarian Studies as Comparative Central European Studies.” CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture (published by Purdue University) (2011):&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> Zsuzsanna Varga Copyright (c) 2023 Zsuzsanna Varga 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 242 250 10.5195/ahea.2023.555 Édes in the Streets, Csípős in the Sheets <p>British tourists played an oversized part in the imaginations of interwar Hungarian tourism promoters. Despite arriving in comparatively low numbers, they fell into a circle of privileged foreigners. When it came to tallying successes in attracting visitors from abroad, Anglophone tourists were “golden pheasants”: rich, glamorous, and willing to part with their precious currency—as long as they were courted in the right way. One of those ways was to manage British expectations when it came to Hungarian cuisine. Paprika was a particular cause for concern. With a reputation for intense spiciness, some tourism promoters worried that it would shock the mild Anglophone palate and attempted to reassure potential guests that Hungary would (literally) be to their taste. Yet their concern was largely unrequited. Why? My article investigates this mystery, and with it, explores the role of paprika both in promoting tourism to Hungary and in the broader management of national “branding” for foreign consumption in the uneasy postimperial cultural atmosphere. Drawing on guidebooks, travelogues, advertisements, periodicals, and films, it argues that the spice served as a symbolic marker of confidence (or lack thereof) in Hungary’s place in global affairs. <a href=""></a></p> Andrew Behrendt Copyright (c) 2023 Andrew Behrendt 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 25 41 10.5195/ahea.2023.508 Joseph de Fontenay, Vilmos de Huszár, the Revue de Hongrie, and Trianon <p dir="ltr">This article addresses the still-perplexing question, as put by historian Andrew Ludányi: “Why were [Hungarians] punished the most severely by the Entente?” It does so by contextualizing Viscount Joseph de Fontenay’s influence on Hungary’s fate before, during, and after World War I. Events while Fontenay was French consul to Hungary (1906–1912) embittered him against his former Hungarian friends. He expressed his rancor in a 1920 letter to the French leader who implemented the Treaty of Versailles after Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau resigned. While in Budapest, Fontenay had founded the successful Hungarian cultural journal, Revue de Hongrie, in French, to form “a durable bond” between the two countries. Vilmos Huszár, editor-in-chief and later owner of the Revue, worked closely with Fontenay. However, historical events drove the journal’s focus toward political issues and support for Austria-Hungary, France’s enemy. Fontenay’s involvement in shaping postwar alliances and sentiment had a negative effect on Hungary’s fate. Huszár’s diplomatic appointment in 1916 to counter Entente propaganda from Switzerland broadened his outlook on events, offering him unique insights that allowed him to bear witness to the devastating effects of false and misleading Entente propaganda and practices in a book of polemical essays.</p> Marguerite de Huszár Allen Copyright (c) 2023 Marguerite de Huszár Allen 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 42 57 10.5195/ahea.2023.505 Possibilities for a New Social Model? <p>One of the most important terrains of the European search for new ways in politics between the two world wars was the debate on the reorganization and tasks of the state and, within it, of the economy and society. This topic dominated academic discourse in the 1920s and 1930s. The thinkers who sought answers—economists, philosophers, historians, sociologists, and ecclesiastics—could build on the work of early predecessors, reaching back as far as Thomas Aquinas’s “organic view of society,” later embodied in the economic and political theory of Jesuit solidarism. The common feature of the theories that emerged in the interwar period was that they approached the construction of the state not from the point of view of the individual, but from that of social groups. Vid Mihelics, a prominent exponent of these ideas in Hungary, devoted his journalistic, scientific, and political activities to the Hungarian Catholic revival. His interests focused on social issues and related teachings of the Church. His writings sought solutions through the ideas of Christian humanism, which for him was “the inalienable essence of true Europeanism.” His writings can help us better understand how interconnected Hungarian intellectual life was with European trends in the interwar period.</p> Péter Krisztián Zachar Copyright (c) 2023 Peter Krisztian Zachar 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 58 72 10.5195/ahea.2023.509 The Auschwitz Report <p>The escape of Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler from Auschwitz on April 7, 1944, was extraordinary in its daring, courageous execution, and impact. The challenging task of the two escapees was to inform the world of previously unimaginable crimes, and to do so in a way that made the unbelievable believable. Because the deportations to Auschwitz were still in progress, it was essential to inform the threatened Jewish populations that they were slated by the Germans to be part of the “final solution.” When and how the transmission of the resulting Auschwitz Report took place, made all the difference, and that is this paper’s focus. Decisive transmissions involved secret networks in Switzerland and Hungary, taking place independently. Despite the presence of the Gestapo and the German army, finally, in early July, 1944, two independent, increasingly powerful efforts engendered by the report converged in Budapest. Only then could one of the most remarkable rescues of World War II take place. <a href=""></a></p> Frank Baron Copyright (c) 2023 Frank Baron 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 73 91 10.5195/ahea.2023.502 Narrating the Danube Swabian Identity and Experience from Women's Perspective <p>This article uses selected memoirs by American women who came from the Danube Swabian minority in present-day Hungary and Serbia (former Yugoslavia). The entire ethnic group was expelled from the region at the end of World War II. All five memoirs were published in the new millennium. This article examines how the narratives frame memories of a prewar happy childhood from young women’s perspective. The childhood memories are presented in stark contrast to the authors’ postwar experiences of expulsion, sexual violence, genocide, flight, and the eventual building of a new life in a new country. All narratives document the brutality with which the Danube Swabian communities were destroyed, particularly in Yugoslavia. Nostalgic overtones about a lost homeland intersect with a lasting feeling of being <em>atopos</em>—i.e., “of no place,” in exile and in the diaspora. While most of the narratives emphasize Danube Swabian victimhood, one narrative stands out in its attempt to create a more multidirectional approach to memory about World War II.</p> Agatha Schwartz Copyright (c) 2023 Agatha Schwartz 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 92 108 10.5195/ahea.2023.484 Materiality and Making Meaning <p>In recent decades, scholars working in the realm of the metaphilology have focused increasingly on the materiality of texts; that is, the material aspect of texts in the making of meaning (cf. Jerome McGann’s “bibliographic code”). This article sets out by clarifying what we mean by the materiality of a text; it does so by outlining and discussing the ideas advanced by George Bornstein. Applying the methodology of historical bibliography, it then examines how the changing material context of the poem “Fortissimo,” by one of Hungary’s towering early twentieth-century literary figures, Mihály Babits, influenced that poem’s interpretability from the first stage of its existence to its multiple republications. This poem’s publication history is exceptional from several perspectives. The March 1, 1917, issue of the journal <em>Nyugat</em> was confiscated because of the poem, and its author was prosecuted for blasphemy. But the poem was published in French the same year, and in two anthologies in German the following year. “Fortissimo” became available in Hungarian again only after the Aster Revolution of 1918, in the volume <em>A</em> <em>diadalmas forradalom könyve</em> (The Book of the Triumphant Revolution), alongside works by many other authors, and, within days, once again in <em>Nyugat</em>.</p> Zoltán Szénási Copyright (c) 2023 Zoltán Szénási 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 109 122 10.5195/ahea.2023.497 The Absurdity and Irrationality of War in the Everyday Life of the Hinterland <p>The present study examines three versions of Tóték (commonly translated as The Toth Family; literally The Tóts), the first two by István Örkény, one of Hungary’s leading twentieth-century writers: a highly successful drama from 1967, instrumental in reforming stage language in Hungary; and the 1966 novella of the same title. The third is their 1969 film adaptation, Isten hozta, őrnagy úr! (Welcome, Major), by Zoltán Fábri. The analysis of the drama and the novel focuses primarily on how a major arriving from the front during World War II brings the madness and irrationality of the war into the life of the Toth family when he stays with them for two weeks. The paper’s second part examines the film adaption, asking in particular how the film represents madness and absurdity, given their key role in the original literary sources. The situation and the fate of the Toth family can be interpreted in all three works in more general terms as well, as a model for the working mechanisms and absurdity of dictatorships anywhere, hence, even if only indirectly, of 1960s Hungary.</p> Miklós Sághy Copyright (c) 2023 Miklós - Sághy 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 123 142 10.5195/ahea.2023.514 Translanguaging in Family Communication <p>This paper reports on a phenomenological study that examined Hungarian American parents’ perceptions and practices related to translanguaging—a systematic scaffolding strategy that utilizes multiple linguistic repertoires to facilitate competence and performance in two or more language—in family communication. We used semistructured interviews with questions related to language use, parents’ reactions to translanguaging, and their perceptions of why and how translanguaging occurs in oral and written family communications. The participants included twelve Hungarian American families with adolescent children who used the Hungarian language in family communication. The findings indicated that most families found translanguaging natural and positive, and these families used supportive and constructive behaviors when translanguaging happened. A few parents rejected the practice of translanguaging when the communication took place in Hungarian, which indicated monoglossic language ideologies. These divergent views of family language policy were often explained by the familial, social, and cultural contexts of the families. Because parents are the main stakeholders in language maintenance, their perspectives and practices are essential. This paper contributes to our understanding of family language policies regarding translanguaging and offer recommendations for a minority language community, the Hungarian American immigrant community, for which translanguaging is not well researched. <a href=""></a> </p> Janka Szilágyi Tünde Szécsi Copyright (c) 2023 Janka Szilágyi, Tünde Szécsi 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 143 162 10.5195/ahea.2023.511 The Hungarian Diaspora in Sydney <p>Focusing on the Hungarian diaspora in Sydney, Australia, this paper finds that the key to preserving the Hungarian identity of emigrants and their descendants is maintaining and cultivating Hungarian traditions. Some institutions and organizations, such as Hungarian schools and the Hungarian Scout Association in Exteris, can help in this regard. To examine this topic, I conducted a pilot study asking the following questions: (1) What are the main elements of Hungarian identity in the diaspora? and (2) What is the main role that Hungarian scouts and other organizations play in preserving Hungarian identity? In the first part of the research, the most prominent people of the Hungarian diaspora in Sydney, Australia were interviewed. The interviews showed that Hungarian scouting plays a crucial role in the survival of Hungarian culture and community, which was reflected linguistically too. Subsequently, I conducted a questionnaire survey, whose results also confirmed that scouting is both an element of and a tool for Hungarian identity construction. Some key elements of identity, according to the respondents—language, culture, holidays, and community—are clearly included in scouting. The results also suggest that support for Hungarian emigrant organizations can be an effective way to maintain national identity.</p> Kinga Constantinovits Copyright (c) 2023 Kinga Constantinovits 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 163 174 10.5195/ahea.2023.491 Ablonczy, Balázs. 2022. Go East! A History of Hungarian Turanism. Translated by Sean Lambert. Studies in Hungarian History. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. 278 pp. Illus. Zsuzsanna Varga Copyright (c) 2023 Zsuzsanna Varga 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 175 178 10.5195/ahea.2023.554 Bohus, Kata, Peter Hallama and Stephan Stach, eds. 2022. Growing in the Shadow of Antifascism: Remembering the Holocaust in State-Socialist Eastern Europe. Budapest: Central European University Press. 340 pp. Illus. Zoltán Kékesi Copyright (c) 2023 Zoltán Kékesi 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 179 181 10.5195/ahea.2023.548 Csák, János Zoltán. 2022. Az amerikai géniusz (The American Genius). Budapest: MCC Press Kft. 136 pp. Károly Pintér Copyright (c) 2023 Károly Pintér 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 182 184 10.5195/ahea.2023.540 Czigányik, Zsolt. 2023. Utopia Between East and West in Hungarian Literature. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan Cham (Palgrave Studies in Utopianism, ix). 252 pp. Ralph Dumain Copyright (c) 2023 Ralph Dumain 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 185 189 10.5195/ahea.2023.550 Frenyó, Zoltán. ed. 2021. Konzervatív arcképek (Conservative Portraits). Budapest: L’Harmattan Kiadó – TIT Kossuth Klub Egyesület. 519 pp. Anita M. Madarász Copyright (c) 2023 Anita M. Madarász 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 190 193 10.5195/ahea.2023.552 Hammerstein, Judit. 2022. Oroszok és magyarok. Magyar írók Oroszország-/Szovjetunió-tapasztalata az 1920─1930-as években (Russians and Hungarians: Hungarian Writers’ Russian/Soviet Experience during the 1920s and 1930s). Budapest: Örökség Kultúrpolitikai Intézet. 444 pp. Peter Pastor Copyright (c) 2023 Peter Pastor 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 194 198 10.5195/ahea.2023.510 Kaposi, Zoltán and József Vonyó, eds. 2022. Pécs története VI: Iparosodás – Polgárosodás: Pécs a Dualizmus korában (The History of Pécs VI: The Growth of Industry and the Middle Classes: Pécs in the Era of Dualism). Pécs: Pécs Története Alapítvány and Kronosz Kiadó. 559 pp. Illus. George Deák Copyright (c) 2023 George Deák 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 199 201 10.5195/ahea.2023.530 Leafstedt, Carl S. 2021. A Thorn in the Rosebush: The American Bartók Estate and Archives During the Cold War, 1948–67. Reno, NV: Helena History Press. 422 pp. Sarah Lucas Copyright (c) 2023 Sarah M. Lucas 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 202 203 10.5195/ahea.2023.549 Majtényi, George. 2021. Luxury and the Ruling Elite in Socialist Hungary. Translated by Thomas Cooper, Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 366 pp. Veronika Schandl Copyright (c) 2023 Veronika Schandl 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 204 205 10.5195/ahea.2023.553 Nadkarni, Maya. 2020. Remains of Socialism: Memory and the Futures of the Past in Postsocialist Hungary. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 252 pp. Katalin Fábian Copyright (c) 2023 Katalin Fábian 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 204 206 10.5195/ahea.2023.489 Nóvé, Béla. 2022. Magyar emigrációtörténeti kézikönyv (Handbook of Hungarian Emigration History). Budapest: Országos Széchényi Könyvtár. 376 pp. James P. Niessen Copyright (c) 2023 James P. Niessen 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 206 208 10.5195/ahea.2023.542 Pánczél Hegedűs, János. 2022. Nem forradalom, hanem szabadságharc: Mindszenty József 1956-os helyzete és tevékenysége (Not a Revolution, but a Fight for Freedom: The Position and Activities of József Mindszenty in 1956). Budapest: L’Harmattan. 390 pp. Bernadette Wirthné Diera Copyright (c) 2023 Bernadette Wirthné Diera 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 209 211 10.5195/ahea.2023.547 Taylor, Mary N. 2021. Movement of the People: Hungarian Folk Dance, Populism, and Citizenship. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 316 pp. Illus. Lisa Overholser Copyright (c) 2023 Lisa Overholser 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 212 215 10.5195/ahea.2023.551 Personal Notes on Hungarian American Bilingualism Research <p>In 1967, linguist John Lotz, born in Milwaukee but raised mostly in Hungary, called attention to the lack of research on Hungarian American bilingualism at a time when monographs and PhD dissertations described, in great detail, the bilingualism of Norwegian, Greek, Polish, and Finnish people in the US. When I became an associate instructor of Hungarian at Indiana University, Bloomington, in 1978, I embarked on <em>The Project on Hungarian American Bilingualism in South Bend, Indiana</em>. As a result, eighty hours of Hungarian speech and sixty hours of English were recorded, and a book appeared in Hungarian in 1990. Not much later, in 1995, I was involved with the publication of <em>Beyond Castle Garden: An American Hungarian Dictionary of the Calumet Region</em>, compiled and written by Andrew Vázsonyi. The personal reflections comprising this article will deal with some important issues concerning fieldwork in South Bend and will offer a brief characterization of the differences between Hungarian American bilingualism in the 1970s and today. <a href=""></a></p> Miklós Kontra Copyright (c) 2023 Miklós Kontra 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 216 223 10.5195/ahea.2023.488 A Hungarian Musician’s Memoir of Suffering, Survival, and Fate <p>Finding an aging manuscript written by a beloved teacher and musician, George Bánhalmi (1926–1935), led the author to investigate Bánhalmi’s detainment, as a Jew, in forced labor in Hungary during World War II, which was the focus of the manuscript. The author’s narrative in this article touches also on some of Bánhalmi’s accomplishments in life after surviving his time of forced labor: graduating with honors from Budapest’s famed Franz Liszt Academy; winning a top prize in the piano category in the 1956 Queen Elisabeth [of Belgium] Competition; concertizing in Eastern Europe and the United States; composing numerous musical works; and, and after settling in the United States in the wake of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, teaching several generations of young people, including the author.</p> Jeffrey Charles Wagner Copyright (c) 2023 Jeffrey Charles Wagner 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 224 241 10.5195/ahea.2023.501 Cultural Lenses and Biological Filters On What Makes a Hungarian in the Present and in the Distant Past <p>The definition of a memoir is “an account of the personal experiences of an author.” This paper provides the reflections of a physical (biological) anthropologist specializing in the genetics of the Indigenous peoples of North America who was born in Hungary, raised in Canada, and served twelve years as president and vice chancellor of the University of Manitoba. This professional background may question the relevance of these reflections to Hungarian studies. However, issues raised by János Kenyeres, the keynote speaker of the 2019 American Hungarian Educators Association conference, in his examination of Hungarian identity manifest in Hungarian literature—specifically, regarding “essentialist thinking”—are related to fundamental issues about the nature of human diversity with which physical (biological) anthropologists have been grappling since the eighteenth century. In an era in which commercial genetic genealogical services promise to identify ancestors and ethnicity, and genetic studies of living peoples as well as archaeogenomic studies of skeletal remains seek to identify relationships, current perspectives on what does—or does not—constitute “the essence of an individual and the groups to which one belongs” are worth considering. Facts, wherever they occur, are subject to interpretation. It is the cultural interpretation that we give to genetic identity that imbues that concept with meaning.</p> Emőke J. E. Szathmáry Copyright (c) 2023 Emőke J. E. Szathmáry 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 16 1 24 10.5195/ahea.2023.506